National Adult Vaccination Program

R NAVPlogo wtagGSA created the National Adult Vaccination Program (NAVP) with the purpose of affecting policy and improving adult immunization rates to achieve the Healthy People 2020 Goals. The goals of NAVP seek to:

  1. diffuse evidence-based immunization information,
  2. affect policy through partnership,
  3. support GSA members making change in their practices to improve adult immunization rates, and
  4. drive sustainable solutions for gaps in knowledge and practice.

NAVP is developed by The Gerontological Society of America and supported by:

glaxosmithklineJohnson & Johnson Health Care Systems   merckpfizer   Sanofi PasteurSeqirus

Looking for GSA's COVID-19 Updates page? Click here.

Newsletters and Publications

NAVP Newsletter

To sign up for the monthly NAVP Newsletter, please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

  • October 2020: A Case in Logistics: Distribution and Administration of COVID-19 Vaccine
  • September 2020: Influenza Immunizations 2020–21: Communication, Clinical, Logistical Challenges
  • August 2020: COVID-19 – Planning for a Vaccine Rollout
  • July 2020: COVID-19 Vaccines – Who Will Take Them and Why
  • June 2020: COVID-19 – Testing the New Vaccine Technologies
  • May 2020: 2020–21 Influenza Season: Finding the Right Message
  • April 2020: Vaccine Communication – New Approaches Needed
  • March 2020: Special Issue on Coronavirus
  • February 2020: RSV – Infections a Problem, Vaccines a Challenge
  • January 2020: Driving Vaccine Uptake – A Psychological Approach
  • December 2019: ACIP finalizes Td/Tdap Advice and Adult Immunization Table for 2020
  • November 2019: Shifting to a Lifespan Approach for the Nation's Vaccine Plan
  • October 2019: Influenza Season 2019-2020
  • September 2019: AVAC Congressional Briefing Update
  • August 2019: ACIP Recommends Shared Decision Making
  • July 2019: Vaccines: Progress on Many Fronts (NAIIS Update)
  • June 2019: Measles: A Lot More than Spots
  • May 2019: Efficacy vs effectiveness
  • April 2019: Achieving Clarity on Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • March 2019: It's Complicated: Interactions Between People and Influenza Vaccine
  • February 2019: Understanding Vaccine Development
  • January 2019: Modulating Microbe/Immune Cell Interactions


Cover of the LTC and IZ publication Vaccines for Older Adults: Overcoming the Challenges of Shared Clinical Decision Making
Cover of the LTC and IZ publication Charting a Path to Increase Immunization Rates in the Post-Acute and Long-term Care Setting
agingandimmunity Aging and Immunity: The Important Role of Vaccines
whatshotimmuno Addressing the Complex Impact of Immunosenescence: The Value of Vaccination
The Advancing the National Adult Immunization Plan Through a Focus on Influenza Meeting Advancing the National Adult Immunization Plan Through a Focus on Influenza - Spring 2016
Vaccines older-adults-HRSA-edits-1 Health Benefits of Vaccines for Older Adults and Recommendations for Improving Older Adult Immunization Rates
  Comprehensive Report of the 2013 National Adult Vaccination Program Summit: Developing Champions and Building a Roadmap for Action to Achieve the Healthy People 2020 Goals for Adult Vaccination
navpfaqs Facts and Frequently Asked Questions about the National Adult Vaccination Program
whatshotimmunoacrossaging-tn What’s Hot in Immunizations Across the Aging Continuum—2013 Update
whatshotimmo-tn What’s Hot in Immunosenescence: Implications for Patient Care
pubstopracticeimmunizationrates-tn From Publication to Practice: A Look at Strategies to Improve Immunization Rates for Older Adults
whatshotnavp-tn What’s Hot in Immunizations Across the Aging Continuum
pubstopracticeinfluenzaolderadults-tn From Publication to Practice: An Interdisciplinary Look at New Developments in the Prevention and Treatment of Influenza in Older Adults
pparfall2012navp-tn Public Policy & Aging Report: Vaccination, Prevention, and Older Adults
calltoactionnavp-tn Call to Action—Reaching the Healthy People 2020 Goals for Adult Vaccination: Proceedings of the National Adult Vaccination Program Scientific Summit, April 2012

Download PDF files of archived NAVP Summit materials.

Podcasts, Webinars, Fact Sheets, Decision Tools and Infographics


Understanding the Vaccine Development Process

The process of bringing a vaccine to market takes extensive research and safety monitoring. Dr. Gordon Douglas explains the steps from preclinical studies to vaccine licensure, and discusses his own experience developing vaccines at a major manufacturer for 30 years. He also shares lessons learned from clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the importance of participant diversity. 

GuestR. Gordon Douglas, Jr, MD, Professor Emeritus, Weill Cornell Medical College

Host: Jo-Ana Chase, PhD, APRN-BC, Associate Professor, Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri Health

This podcast episode is supported by Seqirus. Content was developed by The Gerontological Society of America (GSA).

Applying Risk Communication Models to Immunization Discussions

Communicating the risks and benefits of immunization can be challenging, as the language of science may not always be well understood by the public. Dr. Aaron Scherer shares his research on risk communication and infectious disease, what we can learn from outbreak communication with older adults, and his thoughts on future opportunities in the field.

GuestAaron Scherer, MA, PhD, Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine - General Internal Medicine, University of Iowa

Host: Cheryl Ann Monturo, PhD, MBE, ACNP-BC, Senior Nurse Research Scientist Chester County Hospital/Penn Medicine; Professor of Nursing West Chester University

This podcast episode is supported by Seqirus. Content was developed by The Gerontological Society of America (GSA).

Integrating Immunization in Long-Term Care

A routine immunization program in long-term care facilities can protect residents who are most at risk of poor outcomes if they contract a vaccine-preventable disease, however systemic challenges contribute to stagnant vaccination rates among residents and low vaccination rates among staff. In this episode, Dr. Barbara Resnick discusses her work in improving immunization rates in long-term care, using behavior motivation techniques to encourage staff and residents to get vaccinated, and what she sees as opportunities for future researchers and practitioners.

Guest: Barbara Resnick, PhD, RN, CRNP, FAAN, FAANP, Sonya Ziporkin Gershowitz Chair in Gerontology, University of Maryland School of Nursing

Host: Justine Sefcik, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, Drexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions; Co-convener, GSA Interest Group on Nursing

This podcast episode is supported by Seqirus. Content was developed by The Gerontological Society of America (GSA).

Fact Sheets

GSA, in collaboration with Gerontological Advanced Practice Nurses Association (GAPNA) and AMDA, has launched a new project focused on improving education and awareness of enhanced influenza vaccine products.


Getting to Know the NVAC: Connecting the Immunization and Aging Communities
A GSA Webinar
October 26, 2021

This webinar, Getting to Know the NVAC, will review the purpose and structure of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee – such as who is on the Committee, what and how they make their decisions, and why the Committee matters. It will also share ways to engage with NVAC on issues related to older adult vaccination.

This webinar was developed by The Gerontological Society of America with support from Pfizer.

Getting to Know the ACIP: Connecting the Immunization and Aging Communities
A GSA Webinar
October 25, 2021

This webinar, Getting to Know the ACIP, will review the purpose and structure of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – such as who is on the Committee, what and how they make their decisions, and why the Committee matters. It will also share ways to engage with ACIP on issues related to older adult vaccination.

This webinar was developed by The Gerontological Society of America with support from Pfizer.

Elevating Understanding of RSV in Older Adults
A GSA Webinar
August 31, 2020

Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, causes 177,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths in older adults each year. Those over 65, adults with chronic heart or lung disease, and adults with weakened immune systems are particularly at risk. Yet RSV remains underdiagnosed.

In this one-hour webinar, experts will share what is known about the prevalence, incidence, and impact of RSV in older adults. Participants will understand the symptoms and differential diagnoses for the disease and identify the reasons for underdiagnoses in older adults. Recent coding changes to improve diagnosis will be discussed, along with specific tips for communication techniques for providers at each phase of interaction with older adults who have RSV.


  • Robin Jump, MD, PhD – Case Western Reserve University, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center
  • Lindsay Kim, MD, MPH – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Helen “Keipp” Talbot, MD, MPH – Vanderbilt University Medical Center

This webinar is supported by Johnson and Johnson Health Systems, Inc. Content is developed by GSA. Contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for more information.

Understanding the Value of Enhanced Influenza Vaccine Products in Long-Term Care Settings
A GSA Webinar
September 17, 2020

There are many benefits to preventing flu transmission in long-term care settings yet only about two-thirds of nursing home residents receive annual influenza vaccinations—one of the best known preventive strategies. The COVID-19 pandemic has further amplified the need for effective infection control in these settings. Compared with standard-dose influenza vaccines, enhanced influenza vaccines are not only more effective in preventing disease in older adults, they also provide a higher return on investment. This webinar is designed to help nursing home administrators, infection control teams, and other long-term care staff to (1) understand the benefits of using enhanced influenza vaccine products in residents and (2) learn practical tips that can help leadership and staff consistently apply immunization practices.

Presented by:

  • R. Gordon Douglas, MD, Chair, National Adult Vaccination Program Workgroup; Professor Emeritus, Weill Cornell Medical College (Moderator)
  • David H. Canaday, MD, Professor of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University; Associate Director, Geriatric, Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC), Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center; Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
  • Sherry A. Greenberg, PhD, RN, GNP-BC, FGSA, FAANP, FAAN, Associate Professor, Seton Hall University College of Nursing; President-Elect, Gerontological Advanced Practice Nurses Association
  • Barbara Resnick, PhD, RN, CRNP, FAAN, FAANP, Professor, University of Maryland School of Nursing; Co-Director, Biology and Behavior Across the Lifespan Organized Research Center; Sonya Ziporkin Gershowitz Chair in Gerontology

This program was jointly developed by GSA, the Gerontological Advanced Practice Nurses Association, and AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, with support from Sanofi.


GSA COVID Combined2

Immunization rates of staff and residents in long-term care facilities are low, even though strategies to improve rates are well known. Leaders gathered at a meeting hosted by GSA in May 2018 to discuss the issue and prioritize actions to improve rates. A shareable PDF is also available.


Immune function wanes in all adults—whether healthy or sick—as they age into their fifth decade and beyond. Their bodies become less adept at recognizing and stopping pathogens, and the ability to develop and maintain immunity declines. Also known as immunosenescence, age-related decline in immunity significantly contributes to the susceptibility of older adults to serious conditions, including influenza, pneumonia, and shingles.

The following infographics explain these concepts in easy-to-share formats. See the link below each infographic for a PDF copy. 

Infographic part1 final

 Click here for the PDF copy of Part 1: Immunity As We Age.

Infographic part2 final

 Click here for the PDF copy of Part 2: Shingles - A Case Study in Immunity and Vaccines.

ICAMP Training


From The Gerontological Society of America’s
National Adult Vaccination Program

ICAMP Academy is a 1⁄2-day multidisciplinary program for healthcare professionals who are committed to increasing adult vaccination rates, improving their patients’ health and improving quality metrics in their organization. ICAMP action planning aligns with the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) Standards for Adult Immunization Practice and highlights the role of the immunization neighborhood.

To be notified when the next ICAMP is scheduled or to inquire about bringing ICAMP to your health system or conference, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

NAVP Workgroup Members

To help achieve its goals, the NAVP convened a workgroup of vaccine and policy experts to provide strategic recommendations and direction that focus on improving adult immunization rates and creating sustainable change.   

douglasR. Gordon Douglas, MD
R. Gordon Douglas is currently Professor Emeritus of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College. Dr. Douglas served as a consultant to the Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), from 1999-2011. He retired from Merck & Co. in 1999 after serving as President, Merck Vaccine Division, and a member of its Management Committee for 9 years.  Dr. Douglas is a graduate of Princeton University (1955) and Cornell University Medical College (1959). After internal medicine training at the New York Hospital and Johns Hopkins Hospital, and infectious disease training at NIAID, he served successively as Head of the Infectious Disease Unit, University of Rochester, (1970-1982) and Chairman, Department of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief at New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center (1982-1990) before joining Merck. He is author of over 190 original scientific publications dealing with viral pathogenesis, vaccines, and anti-virals, and was co-editor (with Gerald Mandell and John Bennett) of Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, the standard reference in the field. He is recipient of the R.R. Hawkins Award (Association of American Publishers, 1980), the H. Feldman Award (Infectious Disease Society of America, 1992), and the Maxwell Finland Award (National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, 2000). He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, the Association of American Physicians, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, and the American Clinical and Climatologic Association.

cantuMichelle Cantu, MPH
Michelle Cantu is the Director for Infectious Disease and Immunization at the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), a nonprofit representing nearly 3,000 local health departments nationwide. At NACCHO, Michelle leads the Immunization Program to engage local health departments to increase their capacity in prevention and control of vaccine preventable diseases. She oversees the management of the immunization advisory workgroup, national partnerships among multidisciplinary groups addressing VPDs, and evaluation to further enhance programmatic strategies, policies, and activities. Michelle has over 12 years of leadership experience in public health with a focus on infectious disease prevention. Prior to her role at NACCHO, Michelle was the Director of Community-Based STD Prevention Initiatives at Essential Access Health (formerly California Family Health Council) in Los Angeles, California. In that role, she worked with a diverse group of health centers on quality improvement programs related to reproductive health delivery, services, and data. She obtained her Master of Public Health (MPH) from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health with a focus in infectious diseases and epidemiology and holds a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Texas at Austin.

dcasanovaDanielle Casanova, MBA
Danielle Casanova is responsible for establishing the AMGA population health initiatives’ overall vision, and she provides oversight on all collaborative and acclaim award activities. She leads strategic direction and planning of current and future quality collaboratives and the acclaim award program. She has spent 17 years in total, working for healthcare associations developing, training, and implementing national healthcare programs for the American Diabetes Association and national population health and quality programs for AMGA. Ms. Casanova received her undergraduate degree in Biology with a concentration in PreMedicine and has a master’s degree in Business Administration with a concentration in Healthcare Management.  

gravensteinStefan Gravenstein, MD, MPH
A geriatrician, former John Franklin Chair of Geriatrics and Director of the Glennan Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology at Eastern Virginia Medical School (1996-2007), and Director of Center for Geriatrics and Palliative Care at University Hospitals in Cleveland (2014-2017), he is now Professor in the departments of Medicine and Health Services Policy and Practice at Brown's schools of medicine and public health, and Director, Division of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University. Dr. Gravenstein has a long-standing interest in immunity, inflammation, cardiovascular outcomes and aging especially in the context of vaccines and the long-term care setting, and the topic of the majority of his publications. He also has a specific interest in quality improvement in health care, the culture of care, antimicrobial stewardship, and how to improve care transitions. He was Clinical Director at Healthcentric Advisors, Medicare's Quality Improvement Organization for New England from 2007 to 2019.

resnickBarbara Resnick, PhD, RN, CRNP    
Barbara Resnick received a bachelor of science in nursing from the University of Connecticut, a master of science in nursing from the University of Pennsylvania, and a doctoral degree in nursing from the University of Maryland.

Dr. Resnick’s research focus has been on motivation of older adults, particularly with regard to performance of functional activities and engaging in regular exercise.  Included among her research activities have been several federally funded projects focused on older adults such as Testing the Reliability and Validity of the Exercise Plus Program Post Hip Fracture (NIA RO1 AG17082-01) and Testing the Effectiveness of the Res-Care Intervention (AHRQ R01 HS/MH 13372-010). In addition, Dr. Resnick has numerous projects focused on testing exercise interventions across a variety of clinical areas: community dwelling older adults in a continuing care retirement community and minority older adults in senior centers.  Similarly, Dr. Resnick is the primary investigator on several measurement studies related to physical activity in older adults. She has authored over 100 manuscripts, numerous book chapters on both clinical and research topics relevant to the care of older adults, and she recently authored a book on restorative care nursing.  Dr. Resnick is a fellow in the Academy of Nursing and the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, received the 2003 Distinguished Faculty Research Award from the University of Maryland, and numerous awards for both her clinical work as well as her research.

schaffnerWilliam Schaffner, MD    
William Schaffner is Chairman of the Department of Preventive Medicine as well as Professor of Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.  His primary interests are infectious diseases and their prevention.  Dr. Schaffner has worked extensively on the effective use of vaccines in both pediatric and adult populations.  He is a strong proponent of collaboration between academic medical centers and public health institutions.

Dr. Schaffner is a liaison representative to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and is a member of the Immunization Technical Advisory Committee of the American College of Physicians.  He is a former member of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), Past President of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, and a former Councilor and Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Currently, he is President of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.  Dr. Schaffner is a consultant in public health policy and communicable disease control for numerous national and local institutions including the CDC, the World Health Organization, and the Tennessee Department of Health.  Dr. Schaffner is a member of numerous professional societies and has written over 400 scientific articles and textbook chapters.  He often is called upon to communicate about public health issues in the print media and television.

After graduation from Yale in 1957, Dr. Schaffner attended the University of Freiburg, Germany, as a Fulbright Scholar.  In 1962, he graduated from Cornell University Medical College and completed an internship, residency training, and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.  He was commissioned in the U.S. Public Health Service as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer with the CDC  in Atlanta for 2 years (1966-1968), returning to Vanderbilt after that tour of duty.

COVID-19 Vaccine

COVID-19 Vaccine Information for Older Adults
Last updated April 15, 2021

The following information is being provided to GSA members who work with older adults and wish to support conversations about COVID-19 vaccine. For timely updates and shareable resources from HHS, consider joining the COVID-19 Community Corps.

Results of COVID-19 vaccine trials have been more positive than anticipated, and products are now entering the market through emergency use authorizations (EUAs) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Information related to the development of COVID-19 vaccine changes rapidly. While GSA tries to keep this information up to date, consider verifying specific numbers and licensure stages at the links provided or other publicly available sources.

If you have a question that is not answered below, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

What is known about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines? Were older adults included in clinical trials?

Since the first weeks of COVID-19 spread in the United States, older adults have been at higher risk of infection, disease, severe symptoms and hospitalization, and death. Approximately 4 in 10 of patients needing hospitalization were 65 years of age or older and 80% of those who died of COVID-19 were in this age group. Long-term care facilities have accounted for an inordinate number of cases and deaths, even though only about 1.3 million Americans reside there.

Following clinical trials conducted in small numbers of people (phase 1 and phase 2 trials), phase 3 trials are launched to establish efficacy and safety of vaccine candidates. As of early January 2021, Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use authorization (EUA) from FDA. The limited details currently available from these trials are shown in Figures 1 and 2. As of early March 2021, Janssen COVID-19 vaccine also has been approved for emergency use authorization from FDA, and details are shown in Figure 3. 

As of April 13, 2021, the FDA and CDC put a pause on administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to investigate 7 cases of a rare and severe type of blood clot among 6.8 million doses of vaccine delivered. The cases are among women aged 18-48. The CDC is providing updated information as more is learned and recommendations are updated.

Figure 1. Phase 3 Results for the Ongoing Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2)

Source: New England Journal of Medicine article and editorial; Pfizer website and news release.

figure 1

Figure 2. Phase 3 Results for the Ongoing Moderna mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA-1273)

Source: Moderna phase 1 update news release, enrollment completion news release, and phase 3 news release.

figure 2

Figure 3. Phase 3 Results for Ongoing Jannsen Adenovirus COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S)

Source: Johnson & Johnson website, ACIP slide presentation, and the FDA website and press release

figure 2

What is the difference between an emergency use authorization and FDA approval? 

Taken from the FDA website: "Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) is one of several tools the FDA is using to help make certain medical products available quickly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In certain emergencies, the FDA can issue an EUA to provide access to medical products that may potentially be used when there are no adequate, approved, and available options.

The EUA process is different than an FDA approval or clearance. Under an EUA, in an emergency, the FDA makes a product available to the public based on the best available evidence, without waiting for all the evidence that would be needed for FDA approval or clearance.

When evaluating an EUA, the FDA carefully balances the potential risks and benefits of the products based on the data currently available.

EUAs are effective until the emergency declaration ends. EUAs can also be revised or revoked by the FDA at any time as they continue to evaluate the available data."

It is anticipated that most COVID-19 vaccines will seek full FDA approval (clearance, licensure) as more data become available and the emergency declaration ends. 

Where will COVID-19 vaccine be available?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading states in developing plans to distribute vaccines. Each state has its own plan, and final decisions regarding distribution of vaccines are made at the state level. The plans are based on several factors:

  • Priority groups as determined by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) at CDC (see next section), with final decisions made at the state level.
  • Storage needs of the vaccine. For example, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine requires ultracold storage and will likely be distributed through academic medical centers to health care professionals first. More temperature-stable vaccines will likely be the ones shipped to offices and pharmacies.
  • The Pharmacy Partnership for Long-term Care is coordinating vaccine distribution and administration in long-term care facilities. The pharmacy chains CVS and Walgreens are contracted with the federal government to conduct 3 vaccination days at participating facilities for both residents and staff to receive each of the 2 doses required for the initially available vaccines. With many LTC facilities completing their 3 vaccination days, staff who initially declined a vaccination will need to find an appointment at the same locations as other eligible individuals in the state.
  • Pfizer has provided a U.S.distribution fact sheet with additional details about how they are shipping vaccines in collaboration with the government.
  • With more vaccine availability, has been activated to share sites that have available vaccine.

Who will get the COVID-19 vaccine first?

While technically states have the last say regarding who gets vaccine and in what order, most are expected to follow recommendations of the CDC’s ACIP. Using ethical principles to guide its decisions (benefits/harms, health inequities, justice, transparency), this group recommended and the CDC Director agreed to initially offer COVID-19 vaccines to both health care personnel and residents of long-term care facilities. Paid and unpaid persons serving in health care settings who have the potential for direct or indirect exposure to patients or infectious materials are eligible for vaccination.

ACIP will vote later on which groups should be vaccinated next; Figure 3 shows the current thinking of an ACIP work group.

Figure 4. Proposed Interim Phase 1 Sequence

figure 3

Abbreviations: HCP = health care professionals; LTCF = long-term care facility.
Source: Dooling K. Presentation to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, November 23, 2020.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was also commissioned to develop a report on equitable allocation of COVID-19 vaccine. Its final recommendations are similar to those made later by the ACIP.

What is Operation Warp Speed? How is the federal government involved in the development of COVID-19 vaccines?

Operation Warp Speed is a multi-agency collaboration that has successfully accelerated the COVID-19 vaccine discovery and testing process. By investing money in some companies’ research and development process, paying for manufacture of some doses before clinical testing is completed, and agreeing to purchase doses once products are approved for marketing, the federal government accelerated activities of partnering companies.

Not all companies participate in all components of Operation Warp Speed. For example, Pfizer developed its vaccine without research and development or manufacturing costs. But the government contracted to purchase doses if a vaccine is shown to be effective and receives FDA approval (which has now occurred under an emergency use authorizations).

What is the best way to approach the topic of vaccination with people who may be hesitant?

A December 3 webinar provided updates for health professionals on CDC’s vaccine planning and implementation, including vaccine distribution strategy, current state planning efforts, and the COVID-19 “Vaccinate with Confidence” strategy. This national strategy is intended to reinforce trust in COVID-19 vaccines, empower health care providers in getting vaccinated and recommending the vaccine to patients, and engaging communities in a discussion about these vaccines.

CDC also recommends the SHARE strategy for strongly advocating COVID-19 vaccines:

  • SHARE the tailored reasonswhy the recommended vaccine is right for the patient given his or her age, health status, lifestyle, occupation, or other risk factors.
  • HIGHLIGHT positive experienceswith vaccines (personal or in your practice), as appropriate, to reinforce the benefits and strengthen confidence in vaccination.
  • ADDRESS patient questionsand any concerns about the vaccine, including side effects, safety, and vaccine effectiveness in plain and understandable language.
  • REMIND patients that vaccines protect them and their loved onesfrom many common and serious diseases.
  • EXPLAIN the potential costs of getting the disease, including serious health effects, time lost (such as missing work or family obligations), and financial costs.

What other COVID-19 vaccines are in development?

Dozens of other COVID-19 vaccines are in development in the United States and other countries. For the most up-to-date information on progress for individual vaccines and therapeutics, visit the BIO COVID-19 Therapeutic and Development Tracker:


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